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Termite species

Termites are considered to be the most destructive insect pests in the world. Many buildings and structures are damaged by these pests each year resulting in huge financial losses. 

The main species of termites in Hong Kong: 

Drywood termite: 

Found inside dry wood, usually in structural timbers in buildings. These termites are less reliant on moisture sources and do not need to forage in the soil. 

Dampwood termite: 

  • Feeds on decayed woods such as fallen trees and rotting logs. 
  • Subterranean termite (the most common and serious) 
  • Most commonly found termite in this region; it nests in soil from which it derives moisture. 

Subterranean termites: 

Subterranean termites are social insects which live in colonies; these colonies are usually very large, with hundreds of thousands occupants. They primarily live below the soil surface and generally enter structures undetected via hidden pathways (as thin as a hairline crack) in foundation walls and floors. 

Within a termite colony, there are different castes to represent the division of labour among the individuals. There are the king, queen, alates (or swarmers), reproductives, soldiers and workers with each caste performing a certain function in the running of the colony.

Termite Society

The basic castes in a colony are queens, kings, workers, soldiers and alates.

Termite Queen & King

Termite Queen & King

Giving life to the colony

The function of the Queen and King in the termite colony is to reproduce. Starting out life as an Alate, they leave their parents' colony, drop to the ground and shed their wings to seek out an environment to nest. They care for their young until they are able to take over the duties of the colony.

Termite Workers

Termite Workers

The 'doers'

The workers make up the largest number within a colony. They do all of the work (except defend and reproduce): feeding, grooming, excavating the nest and making tunnels. In doing their jobs, they cause the destruction that effects so many homes.

Termite Soldiers

Termite Soldiers

The colony's defence

Soldiers defend the colony against attack by predatory enemies such as ants, and are equipped with large jaws, sticky fluids or chemical spray to do so.

Flying termites

Flying termites

The future Queens & Kings

Alates are the winged reproductives that swarm out from the nest and establish new colonies. Male and females pair off and look for a suitable environment to mate. They are often confused with ant swarmers.

Coptotermes spp.

Family: Rhinotermitidae (subfamily Coptotermitidae)
Genus: Coptotermes
Type: Subterranean.
Castes: Queen, king, soldier, worker, reproductive.
Nest type & Behaviour: Coptotermes build nest in the soil because they are very dependent on it for moisture. In their search for food, subterranean termites construct mud tubes because they are susceptible to desiccation when exposed to air. They usually work their way above ground to reach wood or any other cellulose source. The cellulose is then broken down into simple starch with the help of the protozoans in the termites gut.

Economic significance: Termites are considered to be amongst the most destructive pest in the world. It is estimated that the annual damages amounted more than USD 40 million on buidlings and strucutre repair and prevention in respect of the termite issue.

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